7spell is scientifically designed, and utilizes principles based on decades of research in learning, retention, and psychology. Here is a summary of the theory and research behind 7spell's effectiveness.
Craik, F., and Tulving, E. "Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol 104(3) (1975): 268-294. Print and PDF. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-34126.96.36.1998
In this seminal study performed at the University of Toronto, Canada, the authors performed a series of tests in which they gave the study participants a sequence of words to learn, with information related to each word as it appeared in order. They discovered that when the information provided stimulated the participant's brain to process the word on a more involved level (referred to as "deep encoding" or "degree of elaboration" in the study), that word was more effectively learned and remembered. With 7spell, the user is given a wide range of additional information about each spelling word, including the word's definition - one of the key factors in enhanced memory, according to this study - as well as usage examples, synonyms, and antonyms.
Gelman, B.D., Gruber, M.J., and Ranganath, C. "States of Curiosity Modulate Hippocampus-Dependent Learning via the Dopaminergic Circuit." Neuron, 22 October 2014, 84(2): 486-496. Web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.060
Students who are eager to learn are more likely to remember what they have learned, something that the authors of this study demonstrate. They used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show real-time connections between a person's curiosity about a specific topic, and the production of dopamine, the neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and the brain's reward system. The authors also concluded that a higher level of interest and curiosity in a topic or question leads to better memory and enhanced learning. Including exercises that stimulate curiosity, and providing reward mechanisms as part of the study process, also increases a person's ability to absorb and retain information, as the researchers found. 7spell has a text import feature that allows each user to include and incorporate practice material that matches their interests, while learning the spelling of words in those texts. The system also uses several different reward systems to encourage users to continue working towards their defined goals.
Garcia, S.M., Tor, A., and Schiff, T.M. "The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective." Perspectives on Psychological Science, November 2013, 8(6):634-650. Print and web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691613504114
Each person is influenced by a unique set of factors related to their own status and progress towards goals, but is also affected to a greater or lesser degree by the achievements and perceived standards of the people around them. This analysis of past and current studies looks at the way people view and are motivated by individual goals as well as societal achievement (competition). The authors conclude that effective use of motivational strategies must take both into account. This is something that 7spell accomplishes by providing each user with the ability to set personal goals, earn reward points, and view their own progress tracking reports, and also to publish all of those results on public social media platforms.
Kivetz, R., Urminsky, O., and Zheng, Y. "The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention." Journal of Marketing Research, February 2006, 43(1):39-58. Web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.43.1.39
In a study focusing on the influence of reward-scheme programs on behavior, the authors found that when people see visible progress towards their goals they are more likely to increase the activity required to reach those goals. The study also confirms that most people are also motivated by receiving rewards for completing specific activities, even if those rewards are not immediately transferable to actual material or monetary benefits. Status points, rewards, and real-time progress tracking are all methods used in 7spell to encourage frequent spelling practice by awarding points for the completion of exercises and activities. Because the user can access their progress charts at any time, they will always be able to see how close they are to achieving their personal spelling goals.
Buton, M., Winterbauer, N., and Todd, T. "Relapse processes after the extinction of instrumental learning: Renewal, resurgence, and reacquisition." Behavioural Processes, May 2012, 90(1): 130–141. Print and web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2012.03.004
Instrumental learning, also called "operant conditioning," is a method by which behaviors are learned in connection with a stimulus, a reward, or both. In this research done at the University of Vermont, the authors studied the ways in which the information connected to a specific behavior is retained when the stimulus is removed, and how subsequent repetition or reward reinforces information recall and a resumption of previously learned behaviors. They conclude that there are two primary methods of reinforcing active memory and behavior: by creating a different way to test the subject's memory, and by providing the opportunity for intensive focused repetition of that stimulus-behavior response. These two methods are widely used in the 7spell activities and games to create the link between instruction and memory that is so crucial in effective spelling learning on the student's part.
Xue, G., Mei, L., Chen, C., Lu, Z-L., Poldrack, R., Dong, Q. "Spaced Learning Enhances Subsequent Recognition Memory by Reducing Neural Repetition Suppression." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2011;23(7):1624-1633. Print and web. http://doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21532
In this study comparing long-term and short-term memory, the study authors tested the neural activity of participants as they memorized a set of images. Half of the study participants used massed learning techniques, in which each new image was presented multiple times in a row; the other half were given the images in a spaced repetition mode, where the images were shown in alternating order. Although each participant saw each image the same number of times, the people in the spaced-repetition exercise were able to accurately remember more images, and for a longer period of time. Repetition is a key technique in learning spelling, and 7spell incorporates spaced repetition in two ways. First, the system uses randomized selection of spelling words from the user's current list to populate the activities and exercises, ensuring an interval between word reviews. Second, the system's Word Discover feature provides pop-up instant review of the words on that list, again in random order. By providing users with multiple opportunities throughout the day to read and review their words, 7spell provides all of the benefits of the spaced repetition methodology in its spelling instruction.
Blocki, J., Cranor, L., Datta, A., and Komanduri, S. "Spaced Repetition and Mnemonics Enable Recall of Multiple Strong Passwords." Cornell University Library, January 3, 2015. PDF. http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.1490v2
Spaced repetition is a memory training tool that relies on frequent and consistent review of information; mnemonics is a memory technique that involves multiple ways of looking at that information, such as the incorporation of images or story lines. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University focused on the combination of spaced repetition and mnemonics in evaluating how best to train people to remember specific pieces of information: computer passwords. They found that by combining the two methodologies, the results in both ease of learning and retention were increased. 7spell uses each method separately and together to help users learn and remember new spelling words by using the same words in multiple exercises, presenting spelling words in a variety of formats, and encouraging users to add information related to each word to make a personal connection that helps them to remember that word and its correct spelling.
7spell was made possible by our amazing team of talented engineers, designers, marketers, business operators, and writers.
Company founder Marc Slater uses his 15 years of software and online business experience to keep 7spell moving forward, and spends his free time with his family, his friends, and his favorite books.
After receiving a Bachelors in Software Engineering with Honours, Gregory became 7spell’s server coding guru. He enjoys playing board games, but when the weather’s good, he’s outside rock climbing.
Rick’s decade of experience in marketing and business development makes him an important member of the 7spell team, and his Shih Tzu and German Spitz dogs think he’s pretty great, too!
Interface design expert, and former computer teacher, Veda creates 7spell’s websites and graphics, and continues her creativity at her 5-dog home by following art and fashion trends.
Basketball enthusiast Neil is 7spell’s front end coding guru. He spends many long hours at the computer at work – and at home, he’s still on the computer, playing video games!
Arianna (Yan) won several academic honors before joining 7spell. Yan brings her knowledge of marketing and investment to the team. In her free time, she enjoys playing basketball and softball.
Anyone who’s been named Programmer of the Year is welcome on the 7spell team, and Gideon is no exception! At work, he uses a computer keyboard; at home, it’s a piano keyboard.
Having achieved academic success with a Magna Cum Laude in Computer Science, Jomelyn is a vital part of 7spell’s dev team. She spends her free time playing Scrabble and watching movies.
CPA Elvijane took top honors at university and uses her skills to keep 7spell’s finances straight. Away from work, she likes to travel, enjoys board games, and plays a mean game of badminton!
Bryan brings a background in risk management and computer technology to the 7spell roster, and when he’s not at work he’s at home cooking for his baby boy, or out enjoying nature.
Self-described basketball fanatic Oliver is a specialist in online retail business strategies and ecommerce. When he’s not working with 7spell’s top-rated customer service department, he enjoys travel and photography.
Phil walked from Land’s End to John O’ Groats (1,880km!) before joining the 7spell team. Phil has over 20 years experience in sales and customer service. He also loves technology and music.
Writer and editor Elizabeth enjoys contributing to 7spell’s success from wherever she happens to be (France, Italy, Norway, the UK, and the USA most recently). She is also an expert cheese maker.
Serial entrepreneur Paul Hayes has been responsible for launching 3 startups. Paul’s specialty is the creation and of marketing strategy. In his spare time Paul can be found on the Ski slopes in the Swiss Alps.
Since finishing her Linguistics degree, Polina has accumulated 5 years experience as a top blogger, copywriter, and editor. Polina loves to write interesting articles and blog posts. She is also fond of yoga, swimming and travelling.
With his knowledge in quality assurance and coding, Dominique has made sure that eReflect products are top quality. After work, he either plays a computer game, basketball or reads Chinese fantasy novels.
Having a curious mind and a passionate worker, Christian is a great addition to eReflect's dev team. He describes himself as a simple person who enjoys exploring and has a great love for nature.
After graduating with a degree in Business Administration and taking top honors, Lyka has pursued a career in the online community and now contributes to the eReflect team. She loves art, fashion, and handcrafting.