The Science

7spell is scientifically designed, and utilizes principles based on decades of research in learning, retention, and psychology. Here is a summary of the theory and research behind 7spell's effectiveness.

Craik, F., and Tulving, E. "Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol 104(3) (1975): 268-294. Print and PDF.

In this seminal study performed at the University of Toronto, Canada, the authors performed a series of tests in which they gave the study participants a sequence of words to learn, with information related to each word as it appeared in order. They discovered that when the information provided stimulated the participant's brain to process the word on a more involved level (referred to as "deep encoding" or "degree of elaboration" in the study), that word was more effectively learned and remembered. With 7spell, the user is given a wide range of additional information about each spelling word, including the word's definition - one of the key factors in enhanced memory, according to this study - as well as usage examples, synonyms, and antonyms.

Garcia, S.M., Tor, A., and Schiff, T.M. "The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective." Perspectives on Psychological Science, November 2013, 8(6):634-650. Print and web.

Each person is influenced by a unique set of factors related to their own status and progress towards goals, but is also affected to a greater or lesser degree by the achievements and perceived standards of the people around them. This analysis of past and current studies looks at the way people view and are motivated by individual goals as well as societal achievement (competition). The authors conclude that effective use of motivational strategies must take both into account. This is something that 7spell accomplishes by providing each user with the ability to set personal goals, earn reward points, and view their own progress tracking reports, and also to publish all of those results on public social media platforms.

Kivetz, R., Urminsky, O., and Zheng, Y. "The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention." Journal of Marketing Research, February 2006, 43(1):39-58. Web.

In a study focusing on the influence of reward-scheme programs on behavior, the authors found that when people see visible progress towards their goals they are more likely to increase the activity required to reach those goals. The study also confirms that most people are also motivated by receiving rewards for completing specific activities, even if those rewards are not immediately transferable to actual material or monetary benefits. Status points, rewards, and real-time progress tracking are all methods used in 7spell to encourage frequent spelling practice by awarding points for the completion of exercises and activities. Because the user can access their progress charts at any time, they will always be able to see how close they are to achieving their personal spelling goals.

Buton, M., Winterbauer, N., and Todd, T. "Relapse processes after the extinction of instrumental learning: Renewal, resurgence, and reacquisition." Behavioural Processes, May 2012, 90(1): 130–141. Print and web.

Instrumental learning, also called "operant conditioning," is a method by which behaviors are learned in connection with a stimulus, a reward, or both. In this research done at the University of Vermont, the authors studied the ways in which the information connected to a specific behavior is retained when the stimulus is removed, and how subsequent repetition or reward reinforces information recall and a resumption of previously learned behaviors. They conclude that there are two primary methods of reinforcing active memory and behavior: by creating a different way to test the subject's memory, and by providing the opportunity for intensive focused repetition of that stimulus-behavior response. These two methods are widely used in the 7spell activities and games to create the link between instruction and memory that is so crucial in effective spelling learning on the student's part.

Xue, G., Mei, L., Chen, C., Lu, Z-L., Poldrack, R., Dong, Q. "Spaced Learning Enhances Subsequent Recognition Memory by Reducing Neural Repetition Suppression." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2011;23(7):1624-1633. Print and web. http://doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21532

In this study comparing long-term and short-term memory, the study authors tested the neural activity of participants as they memorized a set of images. Half of the study participants used massed learning techniques, in which each new image was presented multiple times in a row; the other half were given the images in a spaced repetition mode, where the images were shown in alternating order. Although each participant saw each image the same number of times, the people in the spaced-repetition exercise were able to accurately remember more images, and for a longer period of time. Repetition is a key technique in learning spelling, and 7spell incorporates spaced repetition in two ways. First, the system uses randomized selection of spelling words from the user's current list to populate the activities and exercises, ensuring an interval between word reviews. Second, the system's Word Discover feature provides pop-up instant review of the words on that list, again in random order. By providing users with multiple opportunities throughout the day to read and review their words, 7spell provides all of the benefits of the spaced repetition methodology in its spelling instruction.

Blocki, J., Cranor, L., Datta, A., and Komanduri, S. "Spaced Repetition and Mnemonics Enable Recall of Multiple Strong Passwords." Cornell University Library, January 3, 2015. PDF.

Spaced repetition is a memory training tool that relies on frequent and consistent review of information; mnemonics is a memory technique that involves multiple ways of looking at that information, such as the incorporation of images or story lines. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University focused on the combination of spaced repetition and mnemonics in evaluating how best to train people to remember specific pieces of information: computer passwords. They found that by combining the two methodologies, the results in both ease of learning and retention were increased. 7spell uses each method separately and together to help users learn and remember new spelling words by using the same words in multiple exercises, presenting spelling words in a variety of formats, and encouraging users to add information related to each word to make a personal connection that helps them to remember that word and its correct spelling.


How To Use Apostrophes

Categories: About Spelling, Spelling Resources, Tips and Tricks |

An apostrophe is the punctuation mark that is used in two ways in English: first, it can stand for a missing letter or missing letters in a contraction; second, it can be used to indicate possession. When, where, and how to use apostrophes is often confusing to people learning English spelling, but the rules are simple, and once you learn them, you won’t make mistakes in the future. It’s important to know how to properly use this punctuation mark, because some of the most common spelling errors are caused by misuse of the apostrophe. If you know how to properly use an apostrophe, you’ll never confuse its and it’s and you’ll know whose Who’s Who is whose!

An apostrophe replaces missing letters in a contraction in words like can’t and you’re. When these words are spelled out, they’re written cannot and you are. The apostrophe takes the place of the letters that are left out when the words are “contracted” together. Here are some more examples:

would have / would’ve
she is / she’s
he will / he’ll
I am / I’m

An apostrophe plus an S at the end of the word makes it plural if the word is singular or is a plural noun that doesn’t already end in the letter S. This is sometimes confusing, especially since the apostrophe is used by itself without an extra S if the plural noun does end in an S. In fact, it’s easier to give examples of using apostrophes to form plurals than it is to try to explain it, so take a look at the four categories below:

singular nouns that don’t end in S take ‘s
     the dog’s bone is smelly
     the bee’s buzz is very loud

singular nouns that end in S also take ‘s
     the bus’s capacity for passengers
     a glass’s fragility

plural nouns that don’t end in S take ‘s as well
     children’s games like tag and hopscotch
     the cattle’s brands are shaped like stars

plural nouns that already end in S only have an apostrophe
     our teachers’ salaries
     the families’ traditions

When it comes to proper nouns, you’ll add ‘s to the word if it doesn’t end in an S already (Mark’s cat) or if it does end in an S but is only one syllable long (Mars’s atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide). If the word ends in an S then let pronunciation be your guide; if you’d say the word out loud with an extra S sound, use both the apostrophe and the S, otherwise just use the apostrophe. Charles Dickens’s novels are often put on “must read” lists for school children is an example of the first case here, while Mr. Rogers’ television show was familiar to generations of youngsters in the United States illustrates the second.

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