The Science

7spell is scientifically designed, and utilizes principles based on decades of research in learning, retention, and psychology. Here is a summary of the theory and research behind 7spell's effectiveness.

Craik, F., and Tulving, E. "Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol 104(3) (1975): 268-294. Print and PDF. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.104.3.268

In this seminal study performed at the University of Toronto, Canada, the authors performed a series of tests in which they gave the study participants a sequence of words to learn, with information related to each word as it appeared in order. They discovered that when the information provided stimulated the participant's brain to process the word on a more involved level (referred to as "deep encoding" or "degree of elaboration" in the study), that word was more effectively learned and remembered. With 7spell, the user is given a wide range of additional information about each spelling word, including the word's definition - one of the key factors in enhanced memory, according to this study - as well as usage examples, synonyms, and antonyms.

Gelman, B.D., Gruber, M.J., and Ranganath, C. "States of Curiosity Modulate Hippocampus-Dependent Learning via the Dopaminergic Circuit." Neuron, 22 October 2014, 84(2): 486-496. Web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.060

Students who are eager to learn are more likely to remember what they have learned, something that the authors of this study demonstrate. They used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show real-time connections between a person's curiosity about a specific topic, and the production of dopamine, the neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and the brain's reward system. The authors also concluded that a higher level of interest and curiosity in a topic or question leads to better memory and enhanced learning. Including exercises that stimulate curiosity, and providing reward mechanisms as part of the study process, also increases a person's ability to absorb and retain information, as the researchers found. 7spell has a text import feature that allows each user to include and incorporate practice material that matches their interests, while learning the spelling of words in those texts. The system also uses several different reward systems to encourage users to continue working towards their defined goals.

Garcia, S.M., Tor, A., and Schiff, T.M. "The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective." Perspectives on Psychological Science, November 2013, 8(6):634-650. Print and web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691613504114

Each person is influenced by a unique set of factors related to their own status and progress towards goals, but is also affected to a greater or lesser degree by the achievements and perceived standards of the people around them. This analysis of past and current studies looks at the way people view and are motivated by individual goals as well as societal achievement (competition). The authors conclude that effective use of motivational strategies must take both into account. This is something that 7spell accomplishes by providing each user with the ability to set personal goals, earn reward points, and view their own progress tracking reports, and also to publish all of those results on public social media platforms.

Kivetz, R., Urminsky, O., and Zheng, Y. "The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention." Journal of Marketing Research, February 2006, 43(1):39-58. Web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.43.1.39

In a study focusing on the influence of reward-scheme programs on behavior, the authors found that when people see visible progress towards their goals they are more likely to increase the activity required to reach those goals. The study also confirms that most people are also motivated by receiving rewards for completing specific activities, even if those rewards are not immediately transferable to actual material or monetary benefits. Status points, rewards, and real-time progress tracking are all methods used in 7spell to encourage frequent spelling practice by awarding points for the completion of exercises and activities. Because the user can access their progress charts at any time, they will always be able to see how close they are to achieving their personal spelling goals.

Buton, M., Winterbauer, N., and Todd, T. "Relapse processes after the extinction of instrumental learning: Renewal, resurgence, and reacquisition." Behavioural Processes, May 2012, 90(1): 130–141. Print and web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2012.03.004

Instrumental learning, also called "operant conditioning," is a method by which behaviors are learned in connection with a stimulus, a reward, or both. In this research done at the University of Vermont, the authors studied the ways in which the information connected to a specific behavior is retained when the stimulus is removed, and how subsequent repetition or reward reinforces information recall and a resumption of previously learned behaviors. They conclude that there are two primary methods of reinforcing active memory and behavior: by creating a different way to test the subject's memory, and by providing the opportunity for intensive focused repetition of that stimulus-behavior response. These two methods are widely used in the 7spell activities and games to create the link between instruction and memory that is so crucial in effective spelling learning on the student's part.

Xue, G., Mei, L., Chen, C., Lu, Z-L., Poldrack, R., Dong, Q. "Spaced Learning Enhances Subsequent Recognition Memory by Reducing Neural Repetition Suppression." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2011;23(7):1624-1633. Print and web. http://doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21532

In this study comparing long-term and short-term memory, the study authors tested the neural activity of participants as they memorized a set of images. Half of the study participants used massed learning techniques, in which each new image was presented multiple times in a row; the other half were given the images in a spaced repetition mode, where the images were shown in alternating order. Although each participant saw each image the same number of times, the people in the spaced-repetition exercise were able to accurately remember more images, and for a longer period of time. Repetition is a key technique in learning spelling, and 7spell incorporates spaced repetition in two ways. First, the system uses randomized selection of spelling words from the user's current list to populate the activities and exercises, ensuring an interval between word reviews. Second, the system's Word Discover feature provides pop-up instant review of the words on that list, again in random order. By providing users with multiple opportunities throughout the day to read and review their words, 7spell provides all of the benefits of the spaced repetition methodology in its spelling instruction.

Blocki, J., Cranor, L., Datta, A., and Komanduri, S. "Spaced Repetition and Mnemonics Enable Recall of Multiple Strong Passwords." Cornell University Library, January 3, 2015. PDF. http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.1490v2

Spaced repetition is a memory training tool that relies on frequent and consistent review of information; mnemonics is a memory technique that involves multiple ways of looking at that information, such as the incorporation of images or story lines. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University focused on the combination of spaced repetition and mnemonics in evaluating how best to train people to remember specific pieces of information: computer passwords. They found that by combining the two methodologies, the results in both ease of learning and retention were increased. 7spell uses each method separately and together to help users learn and remember new spelling words by using the same words in multiple exercises, presenting spelling words in a variety of formats, and encouraging users to add information related to each word to make a personal connection that helps them to remember that word and its correct spelling.

Apr
5th

How To Avoid Procrastination In Studies? (Guest Post)

Categories: Uncategorized |


Anna Marsh


If you’re considering for operational methods to beat procrastination and finish your jobs timely, then these tips can come to your rescue:

Avoid Becoming An All-Nighter

The idea of studying late night with your classmates might be tempting but you’ll likely to waste the time in futile chitchats or grapevines.

Also, your friend’s growth might put you off as opposed to inspiring you. Studying in a squad is a good idea when everybody has learned their lessons. After that, it only results in a criminal waste of time.

Choose What Works For You

Each student has their own style of learning. There are students who like to pull attention charts and there are some who use cheerful labels, while others prefer learning through audio and video content. Don’t follow what others claim to be in effect and rather you should use ‘trial and error’ technique to find out what works best for you.

For example, if you have a photographic memory that captures everything. It would likely to make sense if you read more and locate the most significant bits with your stationery (little stickers, markers). If you’re an auditory type of student, you should record the lectures earlier and attend them over and over again until you memorize the materials. Reading out loud is also an effective technique to memorize lessons.

Set The Deadlines

Working too much can miss the definite time restrictions (“I need to write 10 000 words by the next month”). It can be extremely unproductive as you won’t be able to trail your headway and will likely delay the work if you feel like you’re far overdue.

For maximum competence, you should separate your work into equivalent portions and prize yourself after every minor win For example; you can achieve it by viewing an episode of a favorite TV show. The trick here is to avoid biting more than you can swallow.

Rather you should approach your work truthfully. Also, don’t give yourself too much time as the less time you’ll have, the more dedicated you will be.

Work When You Are Alert

Most of us dislike awakening up early but culture and school have tricked us into thinking that this is the one method you can be real. Well, what if you start working at noon and complete in future, let’s say at 9 PM instead of being tired for the entire day and feeling fatigued by lunch? Listen to your body clock and notice when you yawn fewer. Don’t anguish yourself with Red Bulls and espressos, it’s better to sleep for a couple more hours and stay attentive for extended later that day.

Don’t Stress Too Much

Every time you feel nervous and de-motivated, try to be truthful and contemplate numerous situations of what will occur if you prosper/fail in this specific job. Will it be the end of the world for you if you don’t pass this tremendously complex figures test? Confidently it doesn’t mean that you should not care, but don’t pressure too abundant about the marks – ask any graduate what occurred after they unsuccessful an exam and you’ll probably hear…: “nothing really”.

Eat Healthy & Exercise

OK, this tip is as ancient as time – escaping sugary drinks and junk food can significantly increase your performance as your blood sugar ranks won’t jump like senseless. Go for fish, nuts, whole grains and berries. And no, that flapjack from a library vending machine isn’t the finest option – it has more sugar than a Snickers bar!


Author Bio

Anna Marsh is an Academic Advisor, Pro Writer, and a Blogger for UK Assignment Help firm. In her blogs, she writes on topics related to education, career, and corporate world. You can find her on Twitter, Facebook, and Google+.

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