The Science

7spell is scientifically designed, and utilizes principles based on decades of research in learning, retention, and psychology. Here is a summary of the theory and research behind 7spell's effectiveness.

Craik, F., and Tulving, E. "Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol 104(3) (1975): 268-294. Print and PDF.

In this seminal study performed at the University of Toronto, Canada, the authors performed a series of tests in which they gave the study participants a sequence of words to learn, with information related to each word as it appeared in order. They discovered that when the information provided stimulated the participant's brain to process the word on a more involved level (referred to as "deep encoding" or "degree of elaboration" in the study), that word was more effectively learned and remembered. With 7spell, the user is given a wide range of additional information about each spelling word, including the word's definition - one of the key factors in enhanced memory, according to this study - as well as usage examples, synonyms, and antonyms.

Garcia, S.M., Tor, A., and Schiff, T.M. "The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective." Perspectives on Psychological Science, November 2013, 8(6):634-650. Print and web.

Each person is influenced by a unique set of factors related to their own status and progress towards goals, but is also affected to a greater or lesser degree by the achievements and perceived standards of the people around them. This analysis of past and current studies looks at the way people view and are motivated by individual goals as well as societal achievement (competition). The authors conclude that effective use of motivational strategies must take both into account. This is something that 7spell accomplishes by providing each user with the ability to set personal goals, earn reward points, and view their own progress tracking reports, and also to publish all of those results on public social media platforms.

Kivetz, R., Urminsky, O., and Zheng, Y. "The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention." Journal of Marketing Research, February 2006, 43(1):39-58. Web.

In a study focusing on the influence of reward-scheme programs on behavior, the authors found that when people see visible progress towards their goals they are more likely to increase the activity required to reach those goals. The study also confirms that most people are also motivated by receiving rewards for completing specific activities, even if those rewards are not immediately transferable to actual material or monetary benefits. Status points, rewards, and real-time progress tracking are all methods used in 7spell to encourage frequent spelling practice by awarding points for the completion of exercises and activities. Because the user can access their progress charts at any time, they will always be able to see how close they are to achieving their personal spelling goals.

Buton, M., Winterbauer, N., and Todd, T. "Relapse processes after the extinction of instrumental learning: Renewal, resurgence, and reacquisition." Behavioural Processes, May 2012, 90(1): 130–141. Print and web.

Instrumental learning, also called "operant conditioning," is a method by which behaviors are learned in connection with a stimulus, a reward, or both. In this research done at the University of Vermont, the authors studied the ways in which the information connected to a specific behavior is retained when the stimulus is removed, and how subsequent repetition or reward reinforces information recall and a resumption of previously learned behaviors. They conclude that there are two primary methods of reinforcing active memory and behavior: by creating a different way to test the subject's memory, and by providing the opportunity for intensive focused repetition of that stimulus-behavior response. These two methods are widely used in the 7spell activities and games to create the link between instruction and memory that is so crucial in effective spelling learning on the student's part.

Xue, G., Mei, L., Chen, C., Lu, Z-L., Poldrack, R., Dong, Q. "Spaced Learning Enhances Subsequent Recognition Memory by Reducing Neural Repetition Suppression." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2011;23(7):1624-1633. Print and web. http://doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21532

In this study comparing long-term and short-term memory, the study authors tested the neural activity of participants as they memorized a set of images. Half of the study participants used massed learning techniques, in which each new image was presented multiple times in a row; the other half were given the images in a spaced repetition mode, where the images were shown in alternating order. Although each participant saw each image the same number of times, the people in the spaced-repetition exercise were able to accurately remember more images, and for a longer period of time. Repetition is a key technique in learning spelling, and 7spell incorporates spaced repetition in two ways. First, the system uses randomized selection of spelling words from the user's current list to populate the activities and exercises, ensuring an interval between word reviews. Second, the system's Word Discover feature provides pop-up instant review of the words on that list, again in random order. By providing users with multiple opportunities throughout the day to read and review their words, 7spell provides all of the benefits of the spaced repetition methodology in its spelling instruction.

Blocki, J., Cranor, L., Datta, A., and Komanduri, S. "Spaced Repetition and Mnemonics Enable Recall of Multiple Strong Passwords." Cornell University Library, January 3, 2015. PDF.

Spaced repetition is a memory training tool that relies on frequent and consistent review of information; mnemonics is a memory technique that involves multiple ways of looking at that information, such as the incorporation of images or story lines. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University focused on the combination of spaced repetition and mnemonics in evaluating how best to train people to remember specific pieces of information: computer passwords. They found that by combining the two methodologies, the results in both ease of learning and retention were increased. 7spell uses each method separately and together to help users learn and remember new spelling words by using the same words in multiple exercises, presenting spelling words in a variety of formats, and encouraging users to add information related to each word to make a personal connection that helps them to remember that word and its correct spelling.


Handle Suffixes With Ease – And With “E”s

Categories: Spelling Resources, Tips and Tricks, Words That Are Hard to Spell |

In the last post we talked about spelling rules and how the final E on a word will often be dropped if you’re adding a suffix that starts with a vowel. It’s generally easier when the suffix ends in a consonant, because you’ll keep the E and just add the final letter grouping to the base word that changes it to the new word form you want. Today we’ll look at four common suffixes and explain what they mean, and also how the spelling of the base word changes – or doesn’t – when you add the suffix.

The suffix -LESS means exactly what you’d think: you have “less” (or more exactly, “none”) of what the base word is describing. That means that if you take the base word peer (“equal”) and add this suffix, you’ll get the word peerless, which means “without equal.” Here are some other examples of this suffix. Notice that when the base word ends in an E, the E is not dropped.

faith / faithless
age / ageless
pain / painless
grace / graceless
weight / weightless
noise / noiseless
fear / fearless
name / nameless

This is another easy suffix to figure out and use! When you add the suffix -FUL to a base word, you’re making a new word that means “full of [base word].” When something is painful it causes a person to feel “full of pain,” for example. Remember that even though the meaning “full” has two Ls, the word won’t be meaningful if you spell the suffix with two Ls, so only use one.

help / helpful
remorse / remorseful
cheer / cheerful
care / careful
thought / thoughtful
disgrace / disgraceful
beauty / beautiful (note the change of Y to I in this word)

Adding -MENT to a verb generally changes it into a noun. You’ll find other words with this suffix that are a little difficult to trace back to their base verbs, and that’s usually because the base word is a Latin or Greek root. As an example of this, the word fragment goes back to the Latin verb frangere, or “to break.” Again, the final E is not generally dropped with this suffix.

move / movement
refresh / refreshment
excite / excitement
amend / amendment
amaze / amazement
govern / government

“The quality of having or being [base word]” is the definition of most words that end in -NESS. When you use this suffix, you’re taking an adjective as the base word and turning it into a noun. While you’ll keep the final E in most cases, if the final letter of the base word is a Y, you must change it to an I before adding the suffix.

happy / happiness (change the Y to an I)
rude / rudeness
forgetful / forgetfulness
remote / remoteness
calm / calmness
polite / politeness

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