7spell is scientifically designed, and utilizes principles based on decades of research in learning, retention, and psychology. Here is a summary of the theory and research behind 7spell's effectiveness.
Craik, F., and Tulving, E. "Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol 104(3) (1975): 268-294. Print and PDF. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-34188.8.131.528
In this seminal study performed at the University of Toronto, Canada, the authors performed a series of tests in which they gave the study participants a sequence of words to learn, with information related to each word as it appeared in order. They discovered that when the information provided stimulated the participant's brain to process the word on a more involved level (referred to as "deep encoding" or "degree of elaboration" in the study), that word was more effectively learned and remembered. With 7spell, the user is given a wide range of additional information about each spelling word, including the word's definition - one of the key factors in enhanced memory, according to this study - as well as usage examples, synonyms, and antonyms.
Garcia, S.M., Tor, A., and Schiff, T.M. "The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective." Perspectives on Psychological Science, November 2013, 8(6):634-650. Print and web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691613504114
Each person is influenced by a unique set of factors related to their own status and progress towards goals, but is also affected to a greater or lesser degree by the achievements and perceived standards of the people around them. This analysis of past and current studies looks at the way people view and are motivated by individual goals as well as societal achievement (competition). The authors conclude that effective use of motivational strategies must take both into account. This is something that 7spell accomplishes by providing each user with the ability to set personal goals, earn reward points, and view their own progress tracking reports, and also to publish all of those results on public social media platforms.
Kivetz, R., Urminsky, O., and Zheng, Y. "The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention." Journal of Marketing Research, February 2006, 43(1):39-58. Web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.43.1.39
In a study focusing on the influence of reward-scheme programs on behavior, the authors found that when people see visible progress towards their goals they are more likely to increase the activity required to reach those goals. The study also confirms that most people are also motivated by receiving rewards for completing specific activities, even if those rewards are not immediately transferable to actual material or monetary benefits. Status points, rewards, and real-time progress tracking are all methods used in 7spell to encourage frequent spelling practice by awarding points for the completion of exercises and activities. Because the user can access their progress charts at any time, they will always be able to see how close they are to achieving their personal spelling goals.
Buton, M., Winterbauer, N., and Todd, T. "Relapse processes after the extinction of instrumental learning: Renewal, resurgence, and reacquisition." Behavioural Processes, May 2012, 90(1): 130–141. Print and web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2012.03.004
Instrumental learning, also called "operant conditioning," is a method by which behaviors are learned in connection with a stimulus, a reward, or both. In this research done at the University of Vermont, the authors studied the ways in which the information connected to a specific behavior is retained when the stimulus is removed, and how subsequent repetition or reward reinforces information recall and a resumption of previously learned behaviors. They conclude that there are two primary methods of reinforcing active memory and behavior: by creating a different way to test the subject's memory, and by providing the opportunity for intensive focused repetition of that stimulus-behavior response. These two methods are widely used in the 7spell activities and games to create the link between instruction and memory that is so crucial in effective spelling learning on the student's part.
Xue, G., Mei, L., Chen, C., Lu, Z-L., Poldrack, R., Dong, Q. "Spaced Learning Enhances Subsequent Recognition Memory by Reducing Neural Repetition Suppression." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2011;23(7):1624-1633. Print and web. http://doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21532
In this study comparing long-term and short-term memory, the study authors tested the neural activity of participants as they memorized a set of images. Half of the study participants used massed learning techniques, in which each new image was presented multiple times in a row; the other half were given the images in a spaced repetition mode, where the images were shown in alternating order. Although each participant saw each image the same number of times, the people in the spaced-repetition exercise were able to accurately remember more images, and for a longer period of time. Repetition is a key technique in learning spelling, and 7spell incorporates spaced repetition in two ways. First, the system uses randomized selection of spelling words from the user's current list to populate the activities and exercises, ensuring an interval between word reviews. Second, the system's Word Discover feature provides pop-up instant review of the words on that list, again in random order. By providing users with multiple opportunities throughout the day to read and review their words, 7spell provides all of the benefits of the spaced repetition methodology in its spelling instruction.
Blocki, J., Cranor, L., Datta, A., and Komanduri, S. "Spaced Repetition and Mnemonics Enable Recall of Multiple Strong Passwords." Cornell University Library, January 3, 2015. PDF. http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.1490v2
Spaced repetition is a memory training tool that relies on frequent and consistent review of information; mnemonics is a memory technique that involves multiple ways of looking at that information, such as the incorporation of images or story lines. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University focused on the combination of spaced repetition and mnemonics in evaluating how best to train people to remember specific pieces of information: computer passwords. They found that by combining the two methodologies, the results in both ease of learning and retention were increased. 7spell uses each method separately and together to help users learn and remember new spelling words by using the same words in multiple exercises, presenting spelling words in a variety of formats, and encouraging users to add information related to each word to make a personal connection that helps them to remember that word and its correct spelling.
Phobias are fears, but they’re generally not immediate and obvious like other fears. In other words, a phobia is not the fear you feel when you’re walking in a dark place and hear a noise in the bushes, or when your friend jumps out of a closet and shouts “Boo!” A phobia is often unconscious and not related to things that are happening to you at the moment. A phobia is more like a nagging emotional turbulence you might not even be aware of, one that causes you to unintentionally avoid things, people, situations, or places.
A phobia could also be a fear of something in particular, like a fear of trains, or spiders, or even selfies. Read on to find out about the most bizarre tech phobias the technological revolution has unfortunately brought upon us.
This is a fear of technology. Technophobia existed as a concept long before the era of smartphones and tablets. People have always be prone to panicking over the effects and ultimate impact new technology will have over their lives, families, and the world’s future in general. Today more than ever, our tech-driven lifestyles are still making many people uncomfortable and even anxious.
This is the fear of telephones, not in the sense of being lethal weapons but in the sense of answering a call or having to call someone.
It actually falls under the anxiety disorder spectrum of phobias, and affects a lot of people. Just think of how many times you postpone an important call because you’re afraid of how it might turn out.
The proliferation of social media made everyone preoccupied and even stressed over missing out on important developments, events, and even social news due to being without instant access to a mobile phone. “No-mobile phobia” led to the abbreviated term “nomophobia.”
You might think that there’s no reason on earth why people should fear technology and the use of computers and computerized devices. The truth is there are many people who are afraid of using computers, considering their use as an invasion of privacy. Some people are more concerned about the potential drawbacks of computer use than any benefits they provide.
This is a general concept that refers to fear people feel when speaking “in public” – in other words, each time they attempt to answer or share their views on YouTube, a forum, or a website of any sort.
Polls have shown that the number-one fear for many people is public speaking, and that obviously translates into the digital world as well.
This is the fear of not being able to be online or connected all the time. The No-Internet phobia is quite similar to nomophobia and leads to similar symptoms.
The dreaded, soul-crushing second when you realize your smartphone has violently landed on the floor and its screen has broken (if you’re lucky, you’ll then wake up and realize it was just a dream). Drosmartphobia is the fear of Dropping your Smartphone, a fear quite familiar to all of us. (H/T to Itworld.com)
Don’t let technology related phobias get the best of you. More importantly, don’t succumb to the mother of all fears, Phobophobia, fearing fear itself. Now that’s scary.
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