The Science

7spell is scientifically designed, and utilizes principles based on decades of research in learning, retention, and psychology. Here is a summary of the theory and research behind 7spell's effectiveness.

Craik, F., and Tulving, E. "Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory." Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol 104(3) (1975): 268-294. Print and PDF. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.104.3.268

In this seminal study performed at the University of Toronto, Canada, the authors performed a series of tests in which they gave the study participants a sequence of words to learn, with information related to each word as it appeared in order. They discovered that when the information provided stimulated the participant's brain to process the word on a more involved level (referred to as "deep encoding" or "degree of elaboration" in the study), that word was more effectively learned and remembered. With 7spell, the user is given a wide range of additional information about each spelling word, including the word's definition - one of the key factors in enhanced memory, according to this study - as well as usage examples, synonyms, and antonyms.

Gelman, B.D., Gruber, M.J., and Ranganath, C. "States of Curiosity Modulate Hippocampus-Dependent Learning via the Dopaminergic Circuit." Neuron, 22 October 2014, 84(2): 486-496. Web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.08.060

Students who are eager to learn are more likely to remember what they have learned, something that the authors of this study demonstrate. They used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show real-time connections between a person's curiosity about a specific topic, and the production of dopamine, the neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and the brain's reward system. The authors also concluded that a higher level of interest and curiosity in a topic or question leads to better memory and enhanced learning. Including exercises that stimulate curiosity, and providing reward mechanisms as part of the study process, also increases a person's ability to absorb and retain information, as the researchers found. 7spell has a text import feature that allows each user to include and incorporate practice material that matches their interests, while learning the spelling of words in those texts. The system also uses several different reward systems to encourage users to continue working towards their defined goals.

Garcia, S.M., Tor, A., and Schiff, T.M. "The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective." Perspectives on Psychological Science, November 2013, 8(6):634-650. Print and web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691613504114

Each person is influenced by a unique set of factors related to their own status and progress towards goals, but is also affected to a greater or lesser degree by the achievements and perceived standards of the people around them. This analysis of past and current studies looks at the way people view and are motivated by individual goals as well as societal achievement (competition). The authors conclude that effective use of motivational strategies must take both into account. This is something that 7spell accomplishes by providing each user with the ability to set personal goals, earn reward points, and view their own progress tracking reports, and also to publish all of those results on public social media platforms.

Kivetz, R., Urminsky, O., and Zheng, Y. "The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention." Journal of Marketing Research, February 2006, 43(1):39-58. Web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.43.1.39

In a study focusing on the influence of reward-scheme programs on behavior, the authors found that when people see visible progress towards their goals they are more likely to increase the activity required to reach those goals. The study also confirms that most people are also motivated by receiving rewards for completing specific activities, even if those rewards are not immediately transferable to actual material or monetary benefits. Status points, rewards, and real-time progress tracking are all methods used in 7spell to encourage frequent spelling practice by awarding points for the completion of exercises and activities. Because the user can access their progress charts at any time, they will always be able to see how close they are to achieving their personal spelling goals.

Buton, M., Winterbauer, N., and Todd, T. "Relapse processes after the extinction of instrumental learning: Renewal, resurgence, and reacquisition." Behavioural Processes, May 2012, 90(1): 130–141. Print and web. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2012.03.004

Instrumental learning, also called "operant conditioning," is a method by which behaviors are learned in connection with a stimulus, a reward, or both. In this research done at the University of Vermont, the authors studied the ways in which the information connected to a specific behavior is retained when the stimulus is removed, and how subsequent repetition or reward reinforces information recall and a resumption of previously learned behaviors. They conclude that there are two primary methods of reinforcing active memory and behavior: by creating a different way to test the subject's memory, and by providing the opportunity for intensive focused repetition of that stimulus-behavior response. These two methods are widely used in the 7spell activities and games to create the link between instruction and memory that is so crucial in effective spelling learning on the student's part.

Xue, G., Mei, L., Chen, C., Lu, Z-L., Poldrack, R., Dong, Q. "Spaced Learning Enhances Subsequent Recognition Memory by Reducing Neural Repetition Suppression." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 2011;23(7):1624-1633. Print and web. http://doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21532

In this study comparing long-term and short-term memory, the study authors tested the neural activity of participants as they memorized a set of images. Half of the study participants used massed learning techniques, in which each new image was presented multiple times in a row; the other half were given the images in a spaced repetition mode, where the images were shown in alternating order. Although each participant saw each image the same number of times, the people in the spaced-repetition exercise were able to accurately remember more images, and for a longer period of time. Repetition is a key technique in learning spelling, and 7spell incorporates spaced repetition in two ways. First, the system uses randomized selection of spelling words from the user's current list to populate the activities and exercises, ensuring an interval between word reviews. Second, the system's Word Discover feature provides pop-up instant review of the words on that list, again in random order. By providing users with multiple opportunities throughout the day to read and review their words, 7spell provides all of the benefits of the spaced repetition methodology in its spelling instruction.

Blocki, J., Cranor, L., Datta, A., and Komanduri, S. "Spaced Repetition and Mnemonics Enable Recall of Multiple Strong Passwords." Cornell University Library, January 3, 2015. PDF. http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.1490v2

Spaced repetition is a memory training tool that relies on frequent and consistent review of information; mnemonics is a memory technique that involves multiple ways of looking at that information, such as the incorporation of images or story lines. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University focused on the combination of spaced repetition and mnemonics in evaluating how best to train people to remember specific pieces of information: computer passwords. They found that by combining the two methodologies, the results in both ease of learning and retention were increased. 7spell uses each method separately and together to help users learn and remember new spelling words by using the same words in multiple exercises, presenting spelling words in a variety of formats, and encouraging users to add information related to each word to make a personal connection that helps them to remember that word and its correct spelling.

Apr
28th

5 Little-Known Facts About Scripps Spelling Bee (Guest Post)

Categories: Spelling Resources, Tips and Tricks |


Lauren Ebsary


Having correct spelling is probably on of the foundations of proper written English. With text messaging, lack of time, and little attention to the subject, people may not think that spelling words right really matters in the real world anymore. However, they’re not always right. Correct spellings tell the other person who you are, especially when it comes to writing a professional essay, resume, cover letter, or any form of the memo.

But that’s the real world. In the schooling world, the most important event related to spelling is, of course, the Scripps National Spelling Bee! Every year, the E. W. Scripps Company holds a glamorous and prestigious version of a Spelling Bee championship in the United States of America. A dream come through for logophiles, there are also some very fun facts about this event. Some of them are listed below:

It’s Possible to Have Two Winners

There have, in fact, been two people securing the first position in the Scripps Spelling Bee, in the year 1950, 1957, and 1962. More recently, and for the first time in over fifty years, two children won the first price in 2014. These two deserve to be named, too. They were Sriram Hathwar from Painted Post, NY and Ansun Sujoe from Fort Worth, TX.

Where does the word “Bee” come from?

Anyone ever stopped to think why spelling was connected with that particular species? The answer for sure is actually unknown, although the word ‘bee’ has traditionally been used for a social gathering for one single activity. Apparently, the term is purely American in origin and has been in use long before the twentieth century.

Words are Reviewed for the “Giggle Factor”

Cultural and social quirks have to be accounted for when finalizing the words give to the contestants. Some words like ‘flatulence’ or ‘titillation’ might send a middle schooler off into a fit of giggles. In front of a large audience, such an occurrence could be time-wasting at best and embarrass the student at worst.

Hence, it was confirmed by those in the know that each word was thoroughly reviewed before it could appear as in the Scripps Spelling Bee.

Career Patterns of Good Spellers

The first ever Scripps Spelling Bee Champion went on to become a lawyer when he grew up. Since then, most of the finalists in the spelling bee mostly have careers within the fields of science, medicine, or the like. It sort of makes sense, when you think about all the long and hard words that medical books and texts contain. Not being afraid, overwhelmed, or intimidated by complicated long groupings of letters really does come in handy.

Traffic Lights Have a Different Use

Each participant is given a total of two minutes to spell a word. To give them the benefit of being able to track their remaining time, a traffic light is used. The first minute and fifteen seconds, the light is green. Then fifteen seconds of yellow and finally red for the remaining time.

While the judges and the pronouncer could help out the participants by repeating the word or maybe using it in a sentence when the light is green or yellow, they can’t do so anymore once the light turns red. A simple but extremely efficient method.

Wrapping Up…

The Scripps Spelling Bee is one of those events that cherish and motivate students to learn correct spellings, even of those words which they feel one can never use in a lifetime. Indeed, no one really knows what tidbit of information might come in handy at any point. Winning the Scripps Spelling Bee is probably reason enough, as it is a very famous and prestigious event.

Winning this championship, or even being a finalist, is an honor. Moreover, the competition also tests abilities to persevere under stress, focus on the task at hand, and overcome the fear of crowds when faced with the audience. All these are also skills that would further help the participants succeed in their lives.

Author Bio:

Alyssa Healy is an elementary school teacher who frequently blogs about her teaching and learning experiences with her kids at Essay writing service school. She indulges in painting and artwork on the weekend. You can connect with her on Twitter, Facebook and Google+.

 

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